IN so rugged and broken a belt of coastland, the safe deep tidal
creeks are the natural trade highways. On their banks, rich in rice
fields and palm gardens, are the chief trade centres, some as Bankot, Dabhol, Ratnagiri, Malvan, and Vengurla at the creek mouths; others as Khed, Chiplun, Sangameshvar, Rajapur, and Kharepatan, as far inland as trading craft can easily pass. Landwards the through traffic with the Deccan and the Karnatak moves along lines that gather to the chief breaks in the wall of the Sahyadri hills.
Of passes within or close to Ratnagiri limits, the four most important now furnished with well made cart-roads are KUMBHARLI in the north for Dabhol and Chiplun; AMBA for Sangameshvar, Ratnagiri, and Rajapur; PHONDA for Kharepatan and Malvan; and PARPOLI or AMBOLI for Malvan and Vengurla. Besides these four main openings there are sixteen smaller passes. [Of the twenty passes, the Amba, Vishalgad, Anaskura, Kajirda, Bivda and Shevgad are within Kolhapur, and the Nardva, Ghotga, Hanumant, Rangna, Amboli or Parpoli, and Ram are within Savantvadi limits.] Three, north of the Kumbharli or Chiplun pass are, the HATLOT pass in the extreme north near Mahipatgad, practicable only. for ponies and little used, one of the lines of trade that centre in Khed; the AMBAVLI pass, about nine miles south of Hatlot, a fair bullock track, east of Khed, and the chief line of trade between Khed and Satara; and the NORTH TIVRA pass, about 13½ miles north of Kumbharli, a mere foot-path with ladder-like steps cut into the scarp, little used except by hillmen and robbers. Between the Kumbharli and the Amba routes are three smaller passes; the MALA, nine miles south of Kumbharli and about nineteen miles northeast of Sangameshvar, an easy track, which, probably more than the Amba pass, helped to centre trade at Sangameshvar; the SOUTH TIVRA, six miles south of the Mala, a mere foot-path; and five miles further south and eleven north of the Amba, the KUNDI, a bad pass. Between the Amba and the Phonda are five passes: the VISHALGAD, an insignificant pass; nine miles south of the Amba, the ANASKURA, an easy pass, the straight and main line of through trade with Rajapur; the KAJIRDA, a bullock pass between Kolhapur and Kharepatan; and the BAVDA and SHEVGAD passes of little consequence. Between the Phonda and the Parpoli or Amboli are four passes, the NARDVA, GHOTGA, HANUMANT, and RANGNA; and south of the Parpoli there is the RAM pass, all six useful for the Malvan and Vengurla trade. [Of the Ratnagiri Sahyadri passes, soon after the beginning of British rule
(1826), Captain Clunes (Itinerary, 147) has left the following details:—HATLOT, seven miles south of Par and leading from Makrangad fort to Khed, was little used; neither the pass nor its approach was practicable for carnages. AMBAVLI, nine miles south of Hatlot, the line of route from Satara to Khed and Dapoli, was passable but hard for cattle which in places had to be unladen; from the west month of the pass, the whole way to Khed was extremely bad and still worse to Dapoli. NORTH TIVRA, about half way (23 miles) between Satara and Chiplun, though used by Vanjaris and others, was hardly practicable for loaded cattle; the fourteen miles from Tivra and Chiplun were very bad. KUMBHARLI, about 134 miles south of Tivra, winding, long, and of easy ascent, though generally rocky and bad, was the best in that part of the range; it had lately been repaired and was the high road from the coast to Karhad, Satara, Sholapur, and other places. MALA, about nine miles south of Kumbharli, was about three miles long, leading from Karhad in Satara to Makhjan. SOUTH TIVRA, six miles south of Mala, was exceedingly steep for two miles, the road running up a river bed; this was a route between Sangameshvar and Miraj. KUNDI, five and a half miles south of Tivra, was a bad pass. AMBA, eleven miles south of Kundi, led from Devrukh to Kolhnpur and Miraj; Vishalgad fort at the mouth of this pass divided it into two, Devara on the north, unpracticable for cattle, and Prabhavali on the south, little used except, by people going to Vishalgad. ANASKURA or ANSKURA, nine miles south of Amba, was the direct road from Karhad to Malvan, and the usual route from Miraj to Rajapur and Kharepatan; though in no part passable to wheel carriages, the road was good and in steep places paved with large rough stones; it was much used by Vanjaris; the approach from the Konkan side was very bad, but a little labour might make it practicable for guns. KAJIRDA, the straight road between Kolhapur and Rajapur, formerly passable to laden cattle, was stopped. BAVDA, about seven miles north of Shevgad, also a route from Kolhapur to Rajapur, a road for foot passengers, was frequented by laden cattle. SHEVGAD, about six miles north of Phonda, from Kolhapur to Malvan, frequented by cuttle, was out of repair; formerly guns had been brought up it. PHONDA, the direct line from Kolhapur to Malvan, one of the easiest passes to the Deccan, had a few years before been made practicable for ordnance; with little labour it might be put in good repair; it was not much used. GHOTGA the route from Kolhapur and Miraj to Malvan, though bad near the top, was much used by cattle. RANGNA, or PRACHITGAD, was frequented by laden cattle from Kolhapur to Malvan. HANUMANT, or TALKAT, was a very bad cattle road; the Konkan mouth was four miles from Banda. AMBOLI, or PAKPOLI, stony and in no part very steep, was from zigzags difficult for heavy ordnance; it had been used by Colonel Dowse when going to invest Redi (1818); in three days the pioneers made it passable for small guns; merchants from Goa to the Deccan went along this road. RAM was the great pass fo the upper country from Vadi, Malvan, Vengurla, and Goa. The approach to the pass, both above and below, was a made road, the ascent easy and passable for every sort of carriage. The general breadth of the new road, finished in March 1821. was thirty feet. Before this time, in 1790, two detachments of troops on their way from Sangameshvar to Dharwar passed through the steep Amba pass, on which some trouble had been taken. Light baggage and good weather enabled them without much difficulty to go up the pass in a day. Operations, Little's Detachments, 2 & 11.]
At the beginning of British rule (1818-1820) carriage was almost
entirely by water. The Government grain stores, the chief centres
of local traffic, were all hear the banks of crooks, and from no part
of the district, except where water carriage was at hand, was forest
produce gathered and exported. [Mr. Dunlop (1824), Rev. Rec. 121 of 1825, 79-81. The chief forest products were
firewood, gallnuts, and red ahayti, Grislea toment sa, flowers.] In rugged parts near the coast
private charity had fn places hewn rough flights of red stone steps; but they were much damaged and out of repair. In the Parashram pass between Chiplun and Dabhol, there had once been a good made road paved where the ascent required it. But the pavement was (1824) in so bad repair, that cattle chose a winding pathway to the right. [Mr. Pelly (1820), Bom. Rev. Rec, 16 of 1821, 340.] Besides the steps in the rugged places near the coast, the only trace of roadmakiug was, after the rains, the yearly repair of the
Kumbharli or Chiplun pass, [Bom. Rev. Rec. 16 of 1821, 621. A few years later (1826), Capt. Chines Bays (Itinerary, 147): ' From Vengurla to the Savitri there are cattle tracks or pathways usually running straight over dry rocky uplands and across tilled valleys, which, as a rule, are ploughed in the rains. Except close to Malvan, Ratnagiri, and other leading places, there are neither carts nor cart roads.'] There were no wheeled carriages, no horses, no camels, and few pack bullocks. All field and other produce was carried to market on men's heads, and during the first years of British rule, the people suffered much from being forced to carry the baggage of military and other travellers. [Captain Clunes' Itinerary, 63.]
For forty years, except the military road from Vengurla through the Ram pass south to Belgaum, and four miles from the Dapoli camp to the Harnai sands, little was done to better the roads. In 1851, [Capt. Wingate in Bom. Gov. Sel. II. 21.] no attempt had been made to improve even the most frequented lines of traffic. The wear of ages had smoothed them in places, but parts were dangerous to man and beast. Laden animals were jammed between rocks, forced to slide down steep slopes of sheet rock, and, footsore, to pick their way among thickly strewn rolling stones. Carts were unknown, and between many villages and their market towns were not even bullock paths. Their whole produce went to market on men's heads. [Capt. Wingate in Bom. Gov. Sel. II 22.] The hill passes were uncared for, and no heavy weights could pass up or down unless slung on poles, navghans, carried on men's heads. Rough roadmaking was easy. The three main lines of local traffic, running north and south, along the coast, in the centre, and near the Sahyadri hills, might be cleared at a very small cost. But for twelve years more no money was available. In 1864 the whole length of the district roads was 171 miles, and of this, except eight bridged and drained miles between Dapoli and Harnai, the whole was either unbridged, partly drained, second class roads, or cleared tracks. With the introduction of local funds, the work of roadmaking was pressed on. Since then, partly from general and local funds and partly with the help of the Kolhapur and Savantvadi states, roadless Ratnagiri has been covered with a network of good communications including 507 miles of cart-road and several hundred miles of bullock tracks. Such is the carrying power of these roads that in the year (1876-77) of the late Deccan famine, 90,000 tons of food grains passed inland from the coast.
The main district road runs north and south, passing through the chief inland trade centres and crossing the different rivers above the limit of navigation. Starting in the north from Poladpur in Kolaba, and by Kashedi passing through the towns of Khed, Chiplun, and Savarda, it comes as far south as Hatkhamba. From this, where it is joined by a main line from Ratnagiri, the road stretches south through Pali to Lanja, Rajapur, Kharepatan, and Kasarda. South of Kasarda, the main line has, from local funds, been continued to Vengurla, forming altogether a line of 160 miles of road. In the south, from this main road, local feeders have been carried west to Malvan and Achra,
and cross lines taken through Kudal in Savantvadi to the Parpoli pass road; from Kudal by Dhamapur to Malvan; from Kasarda near the Phonda pass, by Vaghotan to Vijaydurg, thoroughly opening that fine stormy weather port; from Kasarda to Janoli, a short cut; from Ratnagiri to the fine stormy season port of Kalbadevi; and further north, from Chiplun west to Ibhrampur; from Khed to Dapoli and Harnai on the coast; from Khed to the foot of the Ambavli pass; from Khed by Palgad to Dapoli; and from Mahapral on the Savitri to Poladpur, connecting the Varanda and Fitzgerald pass roads with an excellent port near the mouth of the Savitri. All these are good fair weather cart roads.
At the same time, besides many cross roads along the coast, a good bullock track, nine to twelve feet wide, has been made from end to end of the district.
Besides these roads connecting most district towns with the sea, first class bridged cart roads have been carried through the Kumbharli, Amba, Phonda, and Parpoli passes, and the others have been made easier for foot passengers and pack bullocks. Those carried through the Kumbharli and Parpoli passes are open all the year round, and the rest only in the fair season.
There are seven toll bars in the district, five of them on provincial
roads at Vengurla, Charveli, Vadgaon, Dajipur, and Pophli, and two on local fund roads, at Vengurla and Gimhavna. All are annually sold by auction to contractors. The amount realized in 1878-79 was £5487 (Rs. 54,370) on provincial, and £143 (Rs. 1430) on local fund roads.
Of the few masonry bridges, including an old one in the town of
Rajapur, the largest is 114 feet in length, with three spans of thirty feet each, built on the Kutivri river on the Chiplun-Ibhrampur road at a cost of £1545 (Rs. 15,450).
Besides three district officers' bungalows at Harnai, Vaghotan, and Malvan, and nine travellers' bungalows for Europeans, one each at Bankot, Mahapral (under construction), Harnai, Ratnagiri, Vijaydurg, Vaghotan, and Vengurla, and two in the fort of Jaygad, there are in all seventy-five rest-houses, dharmashalas, for the accommodation of native travellers. Of these, nine, one each at Dapoli, Vakavli, Burondi, Mahapral, Anjarla, Dabhil, and Bankot, and two, one at the wharf and one in the town of Harnai, are in the Dapoli sub-division; three, at Khed, Dabhol, and Kashedi, are in the Khed sub-division; fourteen, one each at Savarda, Chiplun, Shirgaon, Ibhrampur, Khershet, Govalkot, Anjanvel, Adur, Tavsal, Guhagar, Hedvi, and Kudavli, and two at Palshet are in the Chiplun sab-division; seven at Navdi, Mabhala, Murshi, Aravli, Asurda, Dabhol, and Phungas, are in the Sangameshvar sub-division; six-. teen, one each at Pali, Naniz, Nivli, Hatkhamba, Anjanari, Varavda, Vetoshi, Purangad, Vijay, Malgund, Harcheri, and Jaygad (fort), and four, two at the wharf and two in the town of Ratnagiri, are in the Ratnagiri sub-division; ten, one each at Vaked, Lania, Veral, Karavli, Barsu, Oni, Jaytapur, and Bhalavli, and two in the town of Rajapur are in the Rajapur sub-division; eight, at Phonda Talera, Phanasgaon, Kharepatan, Patgaon, Kankavli, Karul, and
Devgad, are in the Devgad sub-division; six, one each at Tarkarli, Masda, Pendur, and Sukalvad, and two, one at the wharf and one in the town of Malvan, are in the Malvan sub-division; and two, one at the Vengurla wharf and one at Parula, between Malvan and Vengurla, are in the Vengurla sub-division.
Some of the creeks are fordable at low water, while on others and
on some of the rivers, public ferries are kept for the conveyance of goods and passengers. Of the forty-three district ferries, three work during the rainy season, and the rest throughout the year. Five of them are maintained by local funds. Of the whole number, four are in Malvan, five in Devgad, six in Rajapur, ten in Ratnagiri, seven in Sangameshvar, three in Chiplun, and eight in Dapoli. The total revenue in 1878-79 amounted to £874 16s. (Rs. 8748).
The sea traffic is carried on partly by steamers and partly by
sailing vessels. Coasting steamers are of two kinds, a small class of passenger vessels known as the Shepherd Company steamers, varying in size from 160 to 199 tons, and the larger ships of the British India Steam Navigation Company of from 1941 to 2661 tons. Of the Shepherd steamers, some belonging to the Bombay ferry service, and known as the Dharamtar steamers, come only as far south as the Bankot river, taking from eight to nine hours in their passage from and to Bombay. The others, new vessels of light draught, go as far south as Goa and call at almost all Ratnagiri ports. Including stoppages, they generally take from twenty-four to thirty-six hours between Vengurla and Bombay. None of these vessels ply between the end of May and the middle of August. The larger class of steam-ships, belonging to the British India Steam Navigation Company and carrying the mails, are coasting traders going as far as Madras and Calcutta. They sail once a week, and calling only at Ratnagiri and Vengurla, generally make the passage between Bombay and Vengurla in twenty-four to thirty hours. During the stormy season they call at the sheltered creek of Kalbadevi, the harbour for the town of Ratnagiri. Taking piece-goods and storesfrom Bombay, they bring by the return voyage large quantities of cotton from Vengurla and Ratnagiri. Their passenger traffic is very limited.
Of sailing vessels there are two classes, foreign and local. The foreign ships are Arab daus, belonging to Gwadar, Huma, and Chaba, vessels of from seventy-five to 150 tons burden, with two masts and two or three sails, and a crew of a captain, sarang or tandel, a nakhoda, a carpenter, and twenty seamen. Besides meals, the seamen get from 16s. to £1 (Rs. 8-10), and the others from £1 to £1 10s. (Rs. 10 - 15) a month. Of late years, few vessels of this class have visited the Ratnagiri ports. Their owners, generally also their commanders, are mostly Arabs and Indian Musalmans. They generally come from Arabia to Jaytapur about the end of October, bringing dates, raisins, almonds, pistachios, and mats, stay in some Ratnagiri port for about two weeks, load with gallnuts, hemp, turmeric, and groundnuts, and then sail to Malabar or Bombay to fill there. The captains are generally good sailors and men of much intelligence, guiding their ships by the help of the compass and the
quadrant. Though they avoid the roughest season, they often weather very heavy storms.
Of local sailing craft the chief varieties are, besides canoes and fishing boats, the shibadi, the phatemari, the mhangiri, the machva, and the padav or balav.
Besides a few English jolly boats in Vengurla the small boats in use are three, the ulandi, the pagar, and the don. During the stormy months small boats of more than a quarter of a ton (one khandi) burden are drawn up the beach and thatched; the rest are used in rivers for fishing and other purposes. The boat in commonest use is the ulandi, so called from the balance float that, joined to the boat by two spars, lies on the water from six to ten feet, from the boat's side. Ulandis, varying in length from ten to eighteen feet, have one mast and one lateen, parbhan, sail. The pagar and the don are phatemari and machva row boats. The pagar, a hollowed mango trunk, is used either with or without the balance spar, ulandi. The long flat-bottomed don, made of undi, Calophyllum inophyllum, wood, with, instead of nails, well oiled and dammered hemp and coir yarn fastenings, is seen only in Vengurla. It is the best boat for landing horses. Fishing boats are generally provided with two pairs of wooden buoys and their moorings. The shibadi is a large vessel from 100 to 300 tons, generally found in the Ratnagiri sub-division ports. The phatemari, a deep narrow vessel of great speed and an excellent sailer, is from twenty-five to forty-five feet long and from 25 to 100 tons burden. It has two masts and three sails, two yard sails, parbhan, and a jib. The mhangiri or suvala is like the phatemari, but smaller and from ten to twenty-five tons burden. The machvas and padavs or balavs of a broader and flatter build are from twelve to twenty-five feet long and from 2 ½ to ten tons burden. All have two masts and three sails. Except that only phatemaris carry unpressed cotton bales, all take both cargo and passengers. [The fare by sailing boat from the Ratnigiri coast to Bombay is from 6d. to 1s. (4-8 annas).] Besides for coast trading, the smaller machvas are often used for deep sea fishing.
These vessels are owned by Bhatias, Gujars, Lohanas, Musalmans, Parsis, and fishermen either Hindus, Gabits, Kolis, and Kharvis, or Musalmans of the Konkani and Daldi classes, and sometimes by Brahmans.. Fishermen anxious to own a boat, generally join two or three together to form a fishing or trading partnership and borrow capital from some Brahman or Musalman moneylender. The strength of a shibadi's crew is, besides the captain, tandel, from twenty to twenty-five, of a phatemari's from fourteen to eighteen, of a mhangiri's from eight to ten, and of a machva's from five to seven hands. Kolis, Bhandaris, Gabits, Bhois, Kharvis, and Musalmans, the seamen, mostly natives of Harnai and Vengurla, generally belong to the caste of the owner or captain. These vessels work only during the fair season, and are entirely laid up during the south-west monsoon. A large machva, complete with sails and
one boat, costs from £100 to £150 (Rs. 1000 - 1500), and a phatemari from £120 to £200 (Rs. 1200 - 2000). The shipbuilders are generally Hindu carpenters, Sutars and Pachkalsis, helped by Gabit fishermen; others are Musalmans and native Christians. The chief boatbuilding towns are Ratnagiri, Jaytapur, Malvan, and Vengurla, and to a less extent Bankot, Jaygad, and Anjanvel. In 1830, when the teak forests were made over to the Khots, shipbuilding became an important industry. This did not last long. The stores of timber were most wastefully spent, and the district left stripped of trees. At present the timber most used in shipbuilding is, besides Malabar teak, the local bantek or nana, jack, mango, and the light dhup tree. A lucky day is chosen for beginning to build and for launching a vessel. At the time of launching, the vessel is worshipped, decorated with flags and flowers and among Musalmans with sabja leaves, and named [The commonest names arc Lakshmiprasad, Gangaprasad, and Daryadaulat] according to the position of the stars. With music and a company of friends the vessel starts for some miles on a trial trip, the guests being treated to toddy and betelnut. Brahmans get gifts and the shipbuilder a turban. Repairs are generally done by one of the sailors, who is a carpenter and keeps a set of tools. The vessels last from forty to fifty years. Besides his meals, each sailor gets from 1s. to 16s. (Rs. ½ - 8) a voyage, or an average monthly pay of from 4s. to 8s. (Rs. 2 - 4). The captain, when not the owner, gets twice as much as the seamen. Liquor is not generally allowed on board, but some tobacco is always taken. Presents, inams, of waistcloths, turbans, or money are sometimes, though not often, made. The smaller craft generally anchor at night, and do not go out of sight of the Sahyadri hills. But the better class of shibadis and phatemaris go about twenty-five miles from the coast, sailing out of sight of land from ten to fifteen days at a time. Some of the captains understand the compass, though in their coasting voyages they trust almost entirely to their own and their crew's local knowledge. Out of sight of land, they steer by the sun, moon, and stars.
Trade is chiefly carried on with Malabar, Bombay, Cutch, Kathiawar, and Arabia. Of late years, steamer competition has forced sailing vessels to lower their rates. Shipowners' profits have declined, and few new vessels are now built.
There are four light-houses, one each at Ratnagiri and Jaytapur,
and two, the port and the rock light-houses, at Vengurla. The Ratnagiri light-house, north latitude 16° 59' and east longitude 73° 15' 47", in the Ratnagiri harbour, is a masonry tower of thirty-seven feet on a headland about 210 feet high. Diopteric, of order three, it is a single fixed red light, visible from the deck of a ship eighteen miles off, and lightening an area of 108 square miles. The Jaytapur light-house, north latitude 16° 36' 10" and east longitude 73° 18' 30", on the south point of the Rajapur hill, is a masonry tower of twenty-one feet on ground about fifty feet above high water level. Diopteric, of order six, it is a single fixed white light
visible from the deck of a ship 7½ miles off, and lightening an area of 56½ square miles. The Vengurla port light-house, on the north point of the bay, is a masonry tower of twenty-four feet on a headland 186 feet above high water level. Diopteric, of order six, it is a double (one above the other) fixed white light visible from the deck of a ship nine miles off, and lightening an area of fifty-four square miles. The Vengurla rock light-house, north latitude 15° 53' 17" and east longitude 73° 26' 43", on an isolated rock, one of the Burnt Islands, about five miles south of Malvan, is a thirty feet masonry tower on a hill about eighty feet above high water level. Diopteric, of order four, it is a single fixed white light, visible from the deck of a ship twelve miles off, and lightening an area of seventy-two square miles. The swell makes it at all seasons difficult to land on the light-house rock, and in the south-west monsoon communication with the mainland is entirely cut off. Provisions and stores have to be laid in before the close of the fair weather.
The Ratnagiri district, forming part of the Konkan postal division, contains, besides the receiving house in the town of Ratnagiri, thirty-nine post offices. One of these at Ratnagiri, the chief disbursing office of the district, is in charge of a postmaster drawing a yearly salary rising from £90 to £114 (Rs. 900 -1140); three head offices at Chiplun, Dapoli, and Rajapur are in charge of deputy postmasters, each drawing £48 (Rs. 480) a year; fourteen sub-offices at Anjanvel, Devgad, Devrukh, Guhagar, Jaytapur, Kankavli, Khed, Lanja, Malgund, Malvan, Masura, Sangameshvar, Shiroda, and Vengurla are in charge of sub-deputy postmasters, each drawing from £18 to £48 (Rs. 180-480) a year; and twenty-one branch offices at Achra, Adivra, Anjarla, Bankot, Dabhol, Dhamapur, Harnai, Kelshi, Kharepatan, Makhjan, Mandangad, Murud, Nevra, Palghar, Palshet, Pavas, Pendur, Savarda, Sukalvadi, Vaghotan, and Vijaydurg are, except the Harnai office which is entrusted to the village schoolmaster, in charge of branch postmasters, each drawing from £12 to £14 (Rs. 120-140) a year. In the chief towns letters are delivered by twenty-one postmen, each drawing a yearly salary of £12 (Rs. 120). In some places postal runners do the work, getting besides their salaries from £1 4s. to £2 8s. (Rs. 12 - 24). Fifty-four village postmen, drawing from £9 12s. to £12 (Rs. 96 -120) a year, deliver the letters in the surrounding villages. The post offices in the Konkan division are supervised by an inspector with a yearly salary rising from £480 to £600 (Rs. 4800 -6000), assisted by a sub-inspector drawing a yearly salary of £114 (Rs. 1140). The Dharamtar ferry steamers carry the mails from some of the seaport towns. The Southern Maratha Country and the Deccan mails pass by foot runners along three different routes from Vengurla through Kudal to Belgaum, from Rajapur to Kolhapur, and from Chiplun to Karhad. During the fair season, letters are sometimes and heavy parcels are always sent by the weekly steamer to Ratnagiri and Vengurla.
Hitherto there has been but one telegraph station, Vengurla, which, at the extreme south and many days distant by post from the more important towns, has been of little use. The question of extending
a telegraphic line into the north part of the district and especially to Ratnagiri, Rajapur, and Chiplun, after many years' discussion, has at last been solved by the enterprise of the district local fund committee and the municipalities of the three towns named, which have jointly guaranteed to the Government of India the requisite five per cent on the cost of a main line from Kolhapur to Ratnagiri through the Amba pass, with two branches from Ratnagiri to Chiplun on the north and to Rajapur on the south. The total number of messages at Vengurla in 1878-79 was 2390, 229 of them Government and 2161 private.